# Book 10 Proposition 11

Ἐὰν τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον ᾖ, τὸ δὲ πρῶτον τῷ δευτέρῳ σύμμετρον ᾖ, καὶ τὸ τρίτον τῷ τετάρτῳ σύμμετρον ἔσται: κἂν τὸ πρῶτον τῷ δευτέρῳ ἀσύμμετρον ᾖ, καὶ τὸ τρίτον τῷ τετάρτῳ ἀσύμμετρον ἔσται. Ἔστωσαν τέσσαρα μεγέθη ἀνάλογον τὰ Α, Β, Γ, Δ, ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ, τὸ Α δὲ τῷ Β σύμμετρον ἔστω: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ τὸ Γ τῷ Δ σύμμετρον ἔσται. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ σύμμετρόν ἐστι τὸ Α τῷ Β, τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β λόγον ἔχει, ὃν ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἀριθμόν. καί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ: καὶ τὸ Γ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Δ λόγον ἔχει, ὃν ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἀριθμόν: σύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Γ τῷ Δ. Ἀλλὰ δὴ τὸ Α τῷ Β ἀσύμμετρον ἔστω: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ τὸ Γ τῷ Δ ἀσύμμετρον ἔσται. ἐπεὶ γὰρ ἀσύμμετρόν ἐστι τὸ Α τῷ Β, τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β λόγον οὐκ ἔχει, ὃν ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἀριθμόν. καί ἐστιν ὡς τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Δ: οὐδὲ τὸ Γ ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Δ λόγον ἔχει, ὃν ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἀριθμόν: ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Γ τῷ Δ. Ἐὰν ἄρα τέσσαρα μεγέθη, καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς.

If four magnitudes be proportional, and the first be commensurable with the second, the third will also be commensurable with the fourth; and, if the first be incommensurable with the second, the third will also be incommensurable with the fourth. Let A, B, C, D be four magnitudes in proportion, so that, as A is to B, so is C to D, and let A be commensurable with B; I say that C will also be commensurable with D. For, since A is commensurable with B, therefore A has to B the ratio which a number has to a number. [X. 5] And, as A is to B, so is C to D; therefore C also has to D the ratio which a number has to a number; therefore C is commensurable with D. [X. 6] Next, let A be incommensurable with B; I say that C will also be incommensurable with D. For, since A is incommensurable with B, therefore A has not to B the ratio which a number has to a number. [X. 7] And, as A is to B, so is C to D; therefore neither has C to D the ratio which a number has to a number; therefore C is incommensurable with D. [X. 8]