# Book 10 Proposition 4

Τριῶν μεγεθῶν συμμέτρων δοθέντων τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. Ἔστω τὰ δοθέντα τρία μεγέθη σύμμετρα τὰ Α, Β, Γ: δεῖ δὴ τῶν Α, Β, Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον εὑρεῖν. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ δύο τῶν Α, Β τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον, καὶ ἔστω τὸ Δ: τὸ δὴ Δ τὸ Γ ἤτοι μετρεῖ ἢ οὔ [μετρεῖ]. μετρείτω πρότερον. ἐπεὶ οὖν τὸ Δ τὸ Γ μετρεῖ, μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὰ Α, Β, τὸ Δ ἄρα τὰ Α, Β, Γ μετρεῖ: τὸ Δ ἄρα τῶν Α, Β, Γ κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστίν. καὶ φανερόν, ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον: μεῖζον γὰρ τοῦ Δ μεγέθους τὰ Α, Β οὐ μετρεῖ. Μὴ μετρείτω δὴ τὸ Δ τὸ Γ. λέγω πρῶτον, ὅτι σύμμετρά ἐστι τὰ Γ, Δ. ἐπεὶ γὰρ σύμμετρά ἐστι τὰ Α, Β, Γ, μετρήσει τι αὐτὰ μέγεθος, ὃ δηλαδὴ καὶ τὰ Α, Β μετρήσει: ὥστε καὶ τὸ τῶν Α, Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον τὸ Δ μετρήσει. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸ Γ: ὥστε τὸ εἰρημένον μέγεθος μετρήσει τὰ Γ, Δ: σύμμετρα ἄρα ἐστὶ τὰ Γ, Δ. εἰλήφθω οὖν αὐτῶν τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον, καὶ ἔστω τὸ Ε. ἐπεὶ οὖν τὸ Ε τὸ Δ μετρεῖ, ἀλλὰ τὸ Δ τὰ Α, Β μετρεῖ, καὶ τὸ Ε ἄρα τὰ Α, Β μετρήσει. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸ Γ. τὸ Ε ἄρα τὰ Α, Β, Γ μετρεῖ: τὸ Ε ἄρα τῶν Α, Β, Γ κοινόν ἐστι μέτρον. λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ μέγιστον. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, ἔστω τι τοῦ Ε μεῖζον μέγεθος τὸ Ζ, καὶ μετρείτω τὰ Α, Β, Γ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ Ζ τὰ Α, Β, Γ μετρεῖ, καὶ τὰ Α, Β ἄρα μετρήσει καὶ τὸ τῶν Α, Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. τὸ δὲ τῶν Α, Β μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστὶ τὸ Δ: τὸ Ζ ἄρα τὸ Δ μετρεῖ. μετρεῖ δὲ καὶ τὸ Γ: τὸ Ζ ἄρα τὰ Γ, Δ μετρεῖ: καὶ τὸ τῶν Γ, Δ ἄρα μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει τὸ Ζ. ἔστι δὲ τὸ Ε: τὸ Ζ ἄρα τὸ Ε μετρήσει, τὸ μεῖζον τὸ ἔλασσον: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα μεῖζόν τι τοῦ Ε μεγέθους [μέγεθος] τὰ Α, Β, Γ μετρεῖ: τὸ Ε ἄρα τῶν Α, Β, Γ τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ἐστίν, ἐὰν μὴ μετρῇ τὸ Δ τὸ Γ, ἐὰν δὲ μετρῇ, αὐτὸ τὸ Δ. Τριῶν ἄρα μεγεθῶν συμμέτρων δοθέντων τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ηὕρηται [ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι].

Πόρισμα. Ἐκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν, ὅτι, ἐὰν μέγεθος τρία μεγέθη μετρῇ, καὶ τὸ μέγιστον αὐτῶν κοινὸν μέτρον μετρήσει. Ὁμοίως δὴ καὶ ἐπὶ πλειόνων τὸ μέγιστον κοινὸν μέτρον ληφθήσεται, καὶ τὸ πόρισμα προχωρήσει. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

Given three commensurable magnitudes, to find their greatest common measure. Let A, B, C be the three given commensurable magnitudes; thus it is required to find the greatest common measure of A, B, C. Let the greatest common measure of the two magnitudes A, B be taken, and let it be D; [X. 3] then D either measures C, or does not measure it. First, let it measure it. Since then D measures C, while it also measures A, B, therefore D is a common measure of A, B, C. And it is manifest that it is also the greatest; for a greater magnitude than the magnitude D does not measure A, B. Next, let D not measure C. I say first that C, D are commensurable. For, since A, B, C are commensurable, some magnitude will measure them, and this will of course measure A, B also; so that it will also measure the greatest common measure of A, B, namely D. [X. 3, Por.] But it also measures C; so that the said magnitude will measure C, D; therefore C, D are commensurable. Now let their greatest common measure be taken, and let it be E. [X. 3] Since then E measures D, while D measures A, B, therefore E will also measure A, B. But it measures C also; therefore E measures A, B, C; therefore E is a common measure of A, B, C. I say next that it is also the greatest. For, if possible, let there be some magnitude F greater than E, and let it measure A, B, C. Now, since F measures A, B, C, it will also measure A, B, and will measure the greatest common measure of A, B. [X. 3, Por.] But the greatest common measure of A, B is D; therefore F measures D. But it measures C also; therefore F measures C, D; therefore F will also measure the greatest common measure of C, D. [X. 3, Por.] But that is E; therefore F will measure E, the greater the less: which is impossible. Therefore no magnitude greater than the magnitude E will measure A, B, C; therefore E is the greatest common measure of A, B, C if D do not measure C, and, if it measure it, D is itself the greatest common measure. Therefore the greatest common measure of the three given commensurable magnitudes has been found.

Porism. From this it is manifest that, if a magnitude measure three magnitudes, it will also measure their greatest common measure. Similarly too, with more magnitudes, the greatest common measure can be found, and the porism can be extended.