# Book 10 Proposition 78

Ἐὰν ἀπὸ εὐθείας εὐθεῖα ἀφαιρεθῇ δυνάμει ἀσύμμετρος οὖσα τῇ ὅλῃ, μετὰ δὲ τῆς ὅλης ποιοῦσα τό τε συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπ' αὐτῶν τετραγώνων μέσον τό τε δὶς ὑπ' αὐτῶν μέσον καὶ ἔτι τὰ ἀπ' αὐτῶν τετράγωνα ἀσύμμετρα τῷ δὶς ὑπ' αὐτῶν, ἡ λοιπὴ ἄλογός ἐστιν: καλείσθω δὲ ἡ μετὰ μέσου μέσον τὸ ὅλον ποιοῦσα. Ἀπὸ γὰρ εὐθείας τῆς ΑΒ εὐθεῖα ἀφῃρήσθω ἡ ΒΓ δυνάμει ἀσύμμετρος οὖσα τῇ ΑΒ ποιοῦσα τὰ προκείμενα: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ λοιπὴ ἡ ΑΓ ἄλογός ἐστιν ἡ καλουμένη ἡ μετὰ μέσου μέσον τὸ ὅλον ποιοῦσα. Ἐκκείσθω γὰρ ῥητὴ ἡ ΔΙ, καὶ τοῖς μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ ἴσον παρὰ τὴν ΔΙ παραβεβλήσθω τὸ ΔΕ πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΔΗ, τῷ δὲ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ ἴσον ἀφῃρήσθω τὸ ΔΘ [πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΔΖ]. λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΖΕ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ: ὥστε ἡ ΑΓ δύναται τὸ ΖΕ. καὶ ἐπεὶ τὸ συγκείμενον ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τετραγώνων μέσον ἐστὶ καί ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ΔΕ, μέσον ἄρα [ἐστὶ] τὸ ΔΕ. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΔΙ παράκειται πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΔΗ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΔΗ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΔΙ μήκει. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ τὸ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ μέσον ἐστὶ καί ἐστιν ἴσον τῷ ΔΘ, τὸ ἄρα ΔΘ μέσον ἐστίν. καὶ παρὰ ῥητὴν τὴν ΔΙ παράκειται πλάτος ποιοῦν τὴν ΔΖ: ῥητὴ ἄρα ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΔΖ καὶ ἀσύμμετρος τῇ ΔΙ μήκει. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἀσύμμετρά ἐστι τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ τῷ δὶς ὑπὸ τῶν ΑΒ, ΒΓ, ἀσύμμετρον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΔΕ τῷ ΔΘ. ὡς δὲ τὸ ΔΕ πρὸς τὸ ΔΘ, οὕτως ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΔΗ πρὸς τὴν ΔΖ: ἀσύμμετρος ἄρα ἡ ΔΗ τῇ ΔΖ. καί εἰσιν ἀμφότεραι ῥηταί: αἱ ΗΔ, ΔΖ ἄρα ῥηταί εἰσι δυνάμει μόνον σύμμετροι. ἀποτομὴ ἄρα ἐστὶν ἡ ΖΗ: ῥητὴ δὲ ἡ ΖΘ. τὸ δὲ ὑπὸ ῥητῆς καὶ ἀποτομῆς περιεχόμενον [ὀρθογώνιον] ἄλογόν ἐστιν, καὶ ἡ δυναμένη αὐτὸ ἄλογός ἐστιν. καὶ δύναται τὸ ΖΕ ἡ ΑΓ: ἡ ΑΓ ἄρα ἄλογός ἐστιν: καλείσθω δὲ ἡ μετὰ μέσου μέσον τὸ ὅλον ποιοῦσα. ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If from a straight line there be subtracted a straight line which is incommensurable in square with the whole and which with the whole makes the sum of the squares on them medial, twice the rectangle contained by them medial, and further the sum of the squares on them incommensurable with twice the rectangle contained by them, the remainder is irrational; and let it be called that which produces with a medial area a medial whole. For from the straight line AB let there be subtracted the straight line BC incommensurable in square with AB and fulfilling the given conditions; [For from the straight line AB let there be subtracted the straight line BC incommensurable in square with AB and fulfilling the given conditions; [X. 35] I say that the remainder AC is the irrational straight line called that which produces with a medial area a medial whole. For let a rational straight line DI be set out, to DI let there be applied DE equal to the squares on AB, BC, producing DG as breadth, and let DH equal to twice the rectangle AB, BC be subtracted. Therefore the remainder FE is equal to the square on AC, [II. 7] so that AC is the “side” of FE. Now, since the sum of the squares on AB, BC is medial and is equal to DE, therefore DE is medial. And it is applied to the rational straight line DI, producing DG as breadth; therefore DG is rational and incommensurable in length with DI. [X. 22] Again, since twice the rectangle AB, BC is medial and is equal to DH, therefore DH is medial. And it is applied to the rational straight line DI, producing DF as breadth; therefore DF is also rational and incommensurable in length with DI. [X. 22] And, since the squares on AB, BC are incommensurable with twice the rectangle AB, BC, therefore DE is also incommensurable with DH. But, as DE is to DH, so also is DG to DF; [VI. 1] therefore DG is incommensurable with DF. [X. 11] And both are rational; therefore GD, DF are rational straight lines commensurable in square only. Therefore FG is an apotome. [X. 73] And FH is rational; but the rectangle contained by a rational straight line and an apotome is irrational, [deduction from X. 20] and its “side” is irrational. And AC is the “side” of FE; therefore AC is irrational.