Book 11 Proposition 33
Τὰ ὅμοια στερεὰ παραλληλεπίπεδα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐν τριπλασίονι λόγῳ εἰσὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν. Ἔστω ὅμοια στερεὰ παραλληλεπίπεδα τὰ ΑΒ, ΓΔ, ὁμόλογος δὲ ἔστω ἡ ΑΕ τῇ ΓΖ: λέγω, ὅτι τὸ ΑΒ στερεὸν πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ στερεὸν τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει, ἤπερ ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ. Ἐκβεβλήσθωσαν γὰρ ἐπ' εὐθείας ταῖς ΑΕ, ΗΕ, ΘΕ αἱ ΕΚ, ΕΛ, ΕΜ, καὶ κείσθω τῇ μὲν ΓΖ ἴση ἡ ΕΚ, τῇ δὲ ΖΝ ἴση ἡ ΕΛ, καὶ ἔτι τῇ ΖΡ ἴση ἡ ΕΜ, καὶ συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΚΛ παραλληλόγραμμον καὶ τὸ ΚΟ στερεόν. Καὶ ἐπεὶ δύο αἱ ΚΕ, ΕΛ δυσὶ ταῖς ΓΖ, ΖΝ ἴσαι εἰσίν, ἀλλὰ καὶ γωνία ἡ ὑπὸ ΚΕΛ γωνίᾳ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΖΝ ἐστιν ἴση, ἐπειδήπερ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΗ τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΖΝ ἐστιν ἴση διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ στερεῶν, ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ [καὶ ὅμοιον] τὸ ΚΛ παραλληλόγραμμον τῷ ΓΝ παραλληλογράμμῳ. διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ δὴ καὶ τὸ μὲν ΚΜ παραλληλόγραμμον ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ ὅμοιον τῷ ΓΡ [παραλληλογράμμῳ] καὶ ἔτι τὸ ΕΟ τῷ ΔΖ: τρία ἄρα παραλληλόγραμμα τοῦ ΚΟ στερεοῦ τρισὶ παραλληλογράμμοις τοῦ ΓΔ στερεοῦ ἴσα ἐστὶ καὶ ὅμοια. ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν τρία τρισὶ τοῖς ἀπεναντίον ἴσα ἐστὶ καὶ ὅμοια, τὰ δὲ τρία τρισὶ τοῖς ἀπεναντίον ἴσα ἐστὶ καὶ ὅμοια: ὅλον ἄρα τὸ ΚΟ στερεὸν ὅλῳ τῷ ΓΔ στερεῷ ἴσον ἐστὶ καὶ ὅμοιον. συμπεπληρώσθω τὸ ΗΚ παραλληλόγραμμον, καὶ ἀπὸ βάσεων μὲν τῶν ΗΚ, ΚΛ παραλληλογράμμων, ὕψους δὲ τοῦ αὐτοῦ τῷ ΑΒ στερεὰ συμπεπληρώσθω τὰ ΕΞ, ΛΠ. καὶ ἐπεὶ διὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ στερεῶν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΓΖ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΗ πρὸς τὴν ΖΝ, καὶ ἡ ΕΘ πρὸς τὴν ΖΡ, ἴση δὲ ἡ μέν ΓΖ τῇ ΕΚ, ἡ δὲ ΖΝ τῇ ΕΛ, ἡ δὲ ΖΡ τῇ ΕΜ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΚ, οὕτως ἡ ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΛ καὶ ἡ ΘΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΜ. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΚ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΗ [παραλληλόγραμμον] πρὸς τὸ ΗΚ παραλληλόγραμμον, ὡς δὲ ἡ ΗΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΛ, οὕτως τὸ ΗΚ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ, ὡς δὲ ἡ ΘΕ πρὸς ΕΜ, οὕτως τὸ ΠΕ πρὸς τὸ ΚΜ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΗ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΗΚ, οὕτως τὸ ΗΚ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ καὶ τὸ ΠΕ πρὸς τὸ ΚΜ. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν τὸ ΑΗ πρὸς τὸ ΗΚ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΒ στερεὸν πρὸς τὸ ΕΞ στερεόν, ὡς δὲ τὸ ΗΚ πρὸς τὸ ΚΛ, οὕτως τὸ ΞΕ στερεὸν πρὸς τὸ ΠΛ στερεόν, ὡς δὲ τὸ ΠΕ πρὸς τὸ ΚΜ, οὕτως τὸ ΠΛ στερεὸν πρὸς τὸ ΚΟ στερεόν: καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΑΒ στερεὸν πρὸς τὸ ΕΞ, οὕτως τὸ ΕΞ πρὸς τὸ ΠΛ καὶ τὸ ΠΛ πρὸς τὸ ΚΟ. ἐὰν δὲ τέσσαρα μεγέθη κατὰ τὸ συνεχὲς ἀνάλογον ᾖ, τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς τὸ τέταρτον τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον: τὸ ΑΒ ἄρα στερεὸν πρὸς τὸ ΚΟ τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΕΞ. ἀλλ' ὡς τὸ ΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΕΞ, οὕτως τὸ ΑΗ παραλληλόγραμμον πρὸς τὸ ΗΚ καὶ ἡ ΑΕ εὐθεῖα πρὸς τὴν ΕΚ: ὥστε καὶ τὸ ΑΒ στερεὸν πρὸς τὸ ΚΟ τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ΕΚ. ἴσον δὲ τὸ [μὲν] ΚΟ στερεὸν τῷ ΓΔ στερεῷ, ἡ δὲ ΕΚ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΓΖ: καὶ τὸ ΑΒ ἄρα στερεὸν πρὸς τὸ ΓΔ στερεὸν τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ ἡ ὁμόλογος αὐτοῦ πλευρὰ ἡ ΑΕ πρὸς τὴν ὁμόλογον πλευρὰν τὴν ΓΖ. Τὰ ἄρα ὅμοια στερεὰ παραλληλεπίπεδα ἐν τριπλασίονι λόγῳ ἐστὶ τῶν ὁμολόγων πλευρῶν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
Πόρισμα. Ἐκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν, ὅτι ἐὰν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν, ἔσται ὡς ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τετάρτην, οὕτω τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης στερεὸν παραλληλεπίπεδον πρὸς τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς δευτέρας τὸ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγραφόμενον, ἐπείπερ καὶ ἡ πρώτη πρὸς τὴν τετάρτην τριπλασίονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ πρὸς τὴν δευτέραν.
Similar parallelepipedal solids are to one another in the triplicate ratio of their corresponding sides. Let AB, CD be similar parallelepipedal solids, and let AE be the side corresponding to CF; I say that the solid AB has to the solid CD the ratio triplicate of that which AE has to CF. For let EK, EL, EM be produced in a straight line with AE, GE, HE, let EK be made equal to CF, EL equal to FN, and further EM equal to FR, and let the parallelogram KL and the solid KP be completed. Now, since the two sides KE, EL are equal to the two sides CF, FN, while the angle KEL is also equal to the angle CFN, inasmuch as the angle AEG is also equal to the angle CFN because of the similarity of the solids AB, CD, therefore the parallelogram KL is equal to the parallelogram CN. For the same reason the parallelogram KM is also equal and similar to CR, and further EP to DF; therefore three parallelograms of the solid KP are equal and similar to three parallelograms of the solid CD. But the former three parallelograms are equal and similar to their opposites, and the latter three to their opposites; [XI. 24] therefore the whole solid KP is equal and similar to the whole solid CD. [XI. Def. 10] Let the parallelogram GK be completed, and on the parallelograms GK, KL as bases, and with the same height as that of AB, let the solids EO, LQ be completed. Then since; owing to the similarity of the solids AB, CD, as AE is to CF, so is EG to FN, and EH to FR, while CF is equal to EK, FN to EL, and FR to EM, therefore, as AE is to EK, so is GE to EL, and HE to EM. But, as AE is to EK, so is AG to the parallelogram GK, as GE is to EL, so is GK to KL, and, as HE is to EM, so is QE to KM; [VI. 1] therefore also, as the parallelogram AG is to GK, so is GK to KL, and QE to KM. But, as AG is to GK, so is the solid AB to the solid EO, as GK is to KL, so is the solid OE to the solid QL, and, as QE is to KM, so is the solid QL to the solid KP; [XI. 32] therefore also, as the solid AB is to EO, so is EO to QL, and QL to KP. But, if four magnitudes be continuously proportional, the first has to the fourth the ratio triplicate of that which it has to the second; [V. Def. 10] therefore the solid AB has to KP the ratio triplicate of that which AB has to EO. But, as AB is to EO, so is the parallelogram AG to GK, and the straight line AE to EK [VI. 1]; hence the solid AB has also to KP the ratio triplicate of that which AE has to EK. But the solid KP is equal to the solid CD, and the straight line EK to CF; therefore the solid AB has also to the solid CD the ratio triplicate of that which the corresponding side of it, AE, has to the corresponding side CF. Therefore etc. Q. E. D.
Porism. From this it is manifest that, if four straight lines be <continuously> proportional, as the first is to the fourth, so will a parallelepipedal solid on the first be to the similar and similarly described parallelepipedal solid on the second, inasmuch as the first has to the fourth the ratio triplicate of that which it has to the second.