Book 13 Proposition 2
Ἐὰν εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμήματος ἑαυτῆς πενταπλάσιον δύνηται, τῆς διπλασίας τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τεμνομένης τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμα τὸ λοιπὸν μέρος ἐστὶ τῆς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθείας. Εὐθεῖα γὰρ γραμμὴ ἡ ΑΒ τμήματος ἑαυτῆς τοῦ ΑΓ πενταπλάσιον δυνάσθω, τῆς δὲ ΑΓ διπλῆ ἔστω ἡ ΓΔ: λέγω, ὅτι τῆς ΓΔ ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τεμνομένης τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμά ἐστιν ἡ ΓΒ. Ἀναγεγράφθω γὰρ ἀφ' ἑκατέρας τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ τετράγωνα τὰ ΑΖ, ΓΗ, καὶ καταγεγράφθω ἐν τῷ ΑΖ τὸ σχῆμα, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΒΕ. καὶ ἐπεὶ πενταπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΑ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΑΓ, πενταπλάσιόν ἐστι τὸ ΑΖ τοῦ ΑΘ. τετραπλάσιος ἄρα ὁ ΜΝΞ γνώμων τοῦ ΑΘ. καὶ ἐπεὶ διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ΔΓ τῆς ΓΑ, τετραπλάσιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ ΔΓ τοῦ ἀπὸ ΓΑ, τουτέστι τὸ ΓΗ τοῦ ΑΘ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὁ ΜΝΞ γνώμων τετραπλάσιος τοῦ ΑΘ: ἴσος ἄρα ὁ ΜΝΞ γνώμων τῷ ΓΗ. καὶ ἐπεὶ διπλῆ ἐστιν ἡ ΔΓ τῆς ΓΑ, ἴση δὲ ἡ μὲν ΔΓ τῇ ΓΚ, ἡ δὲ ΑΓ τῇ ΓΘ [διπλῆ ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΚΓ τῆς ΓΘ], διπλάσιον ἄρα καὶ τὸ ΚΒ τοῦ ΒΘ. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ τὰ ΛΘ, ΘΒ τοῦ ΘΒ διπλάσια: ἴσον ἄρα τὸ ΚΒ τοῖς ΛΘ, ΘΒ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ ὅλος ὁ ΜΝΞ γνώμων ὅλῳ τῷ ΓΗ ἴσος: καὶ λοιπὸν ἄρα τὸ ΘΖ τῷ ΒΗ ἐστιν ἴσον. καί ἐστι τὸ μὲν ΒΗ τὸ ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔΒ: ἴση γὰρ ἡ ΓΔ τῇ ΔΗ: τὸ δὲ ΘΖ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ: τὸ ἄρα ὑπὸ τῶν ΓΔΒ ἴσον ἐστὶ τῷ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΒ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ, οὕτως ἡ ΓΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΔ. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΔΓ τῆς ΓΒ: μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΓΒ τῆς ΒΔ. τῆς ΓΔ ἄρα εὐθείας ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τεμνομένης τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμά ἐστιν ἡ ΓΒ. Ἐὰν ἄρα εὐθεῖα γραμμὴ τμήματος ἑαυτῆς πενταπλάσιον δύνηται, τῆς διπλασίας τοῦ εἰρημένου τμήματος ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τεμνομένης τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμα τὸ λοιπὸν μέρος ἐστὶ τῆς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εὐθείας: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
Λῆμμα. Ὅτι δὲ ἡ διπλῆ τῆς ΑΓ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ΒΓ, οὕτως δεικτέον. Εἰ γὰρ μή, ἔστω, εἰ δυνατόν, ἡ ΒΓ διπλῆ τῆς ΓΑ. τετραπλάσιον ἄρα τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΓ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ: πενταπλάσια ἄρα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΓ, ΓΑ τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΑ πενταπλάσιον τοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ΓΑ: τὸ ἄρα ἀπὸ τῆς ΒΑ ἴσον ἐστὶ τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ΒΓ, ΓΑ: ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα ἡ ΓΒ διπλασία ἐστὶ τῆς ΑΓ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι οὐδὲ ἡ ἐλάττων τῆς ΓΒ διπλασίων ἐστὶ τῆς ΓΑ: πολλῷ γὰρ [μεῖζον] τὸ ἄτοπον. Ἡ ἄρα τῆς ΑΓ διπλῆ μείζων ἐστὶ τῆς ΓΒ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
If the square on a straight line be five times the square on a segment of it, then, when the double of the said segment is cut in extreme and mean ratio, the greater segment is the remaining part of the original straight line. For let the square on the straight line AB be five times the square on the segment AC of it, and let CD be double of AC; I say that, when CD is cut in extreme and mean ratio, the greater segment is CB. Let the squares AF, CG be described on AB, CD respectively, let the figure in AF be drawn, and let BE be drawn through. Now, since the square on BA is five times the square on AC, AF is five times AH. Therefore the gnomon MNO is quadruple of AH. And, since DC is double of CA, therefore the square on DC is quadruple of the square on CA, that is, CG is quadruple of AH. But the gnomon MNO was also proved quadruple of AH; therefore the gnomon MNO is equal to CG. And, since DC is double of CA, while DC is equal to CK, and AC to CH, therefore KB is also double of BH. [VI. 1] But LH, HB are also double of HB; therefore KB is equal to LH, HB. But the whole gnomon MNO was also proved equal to the whole CG; therefore the remainder HF is equal to BG. And BG is the rectangle CD, DB, for CD is equal to DG; and HF is the square on CB; therefore the rectangle CD, DB is equal to the square on CB. Therefore, as DC is to CB, so is CB to BD. But DC is greater than CB; therefore CB is also greater than BD. Therefore, when the straight line CD is cut in extreme and mean ratio, CB is the greater segment. Therefore etc. Q. E. D.
Lemma. That the double of AC is greater than BC is to be proved thus. If not, let BC be, if possible, double of CA. Therefore the square on BC is quadruple of the square on CA; therefore the squares on BC, CA are five times the square on CA. But, by hypothesis, the square on BA is also five times the square on CA; therefore the square on BA is equal to the squares on BC, CA: which is impossible. [II. 4] Therefore CB is not double of AC. Similarly we can prove that neither is a straight line less than CB double of CA; for the absurdity is much greater.