Book 13 Proposition 9
Ἐὰν ἡ τοῦ ἑξαγώνου πλευρὰ καὶ ἡ τοῦ δεκαγώνου τῶν εἰς τὸν αὐτὸν κύκλον ἐγγραφομένων συντεθῶσιν, ἡ ὅλη εὐθεῖα ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται, καὶ τὸ μεῖζον αὐτῆς τμῆμά ἐστιν ἡ τοῦ ἑξαγώνου πλευρά. Ἔστω κύκλος ὁ ΑΒΓ, καὶ τῶν εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον ἐγγραφομένων σχημάτων, δεκαγώνου μὲν ἔστω πλευρὰ ἡ ΒΓ, ἑξαγώνου δὲ ἡ ΓΔ, καὶ ἔστωσαν ἐπ' εὐθείας: λέγω, ὅτι ἡ ὅλη εὐθεῖα ἡ ΒΔ ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται, καὶ τὸ μεῖζον αὐτῆς τμῆμά ἐστιν ἡ ΓΔ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τὸ κέντρον τοῦ κύκλου τὸ Ε σημεῖον, καὶ ἐπεζεύχθωσαν αἱ ΕΒ, ΕΓ, ΕΔ, καὶ διήχθω ἡ ΒΕ ἐπὶ τὸ Α. ἐπεὶ δεκαγώνου ἰσοπλεύρου πλευρά ἐστιν ἡ ΒΓ, πενταπλασίων ἄρα ἡ ΑΓΒ περιφέρεια τῆς ΒΓ περιφερείας: τετραπλασίων ἄρα ἡ ΑΓ περιφέρεια τῆς ΓΒ. ὡς δὲ ἡ ΑΓ περιφέρεια πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ, οὕτως ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ γωνία πρὸς τὴν ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ: τετραπλασίων ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΓΕΒ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΓ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ, ἡ ἄρα ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ γωνία διπλασία ἐστὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΕΓ εὐθεῖα τῇ ΓΔ: ἑκατέρα γὰρ αὐτῶν ἴση ἐστὶ τῇ τοῦ ἑξαγώνου πλευρᾷ τοῦ εἰς τὸν ΑΒΓ κύκλον [ἐγγραφομένου]: ἴση ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ὑπὸ ΓΕΔ γωνία τῇ ὑπὸ ΓΔΕ γωνίᾳ: διπλασία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ γωνία τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΓ. ἀλλὰ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ διπλασία ἐδείχθη ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ: τετραπλασία ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ τῆς ὑπὸ ΕΔΓ. ἐδείχθη δὲ καὶ τῆς ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ τετραπλασία ἡ ὑπὸ ΑΕΓ: ἴση ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΔΓ τῇ ὑπὸ ΒΕΓ. κοινὴ δὲ τῶν δύο τριγώνων, τοῦ τε ΒΕΓ καὶ τοῦ ΒΕΔ, ἡ ὑπὸ ΕΒΔ γωνία: καὶ λοιπὴ ἄρα ἡ ὑπὸ ΒΕΔ τῇ ὑπὸ ΕΓΒ ἐστιν ἴση: ἰσογώνιον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΕΒΔ τρίγωνον τῷ ΕΒΓ τριγώνῳ. ἀνάλογον ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΔΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΕ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΒ πρὸς τὴν ΒΓ. ἴση δὲ ἡ ΕΒ τῇ ΓΔ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΒΔ πρὸς τὴν ΔΓ, οὕτως ἡ ΔΓ πρὸς τὴν ΓΒ. μείζων δὲ ἡ ΒΔ τῆς ΔΓ: μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΔΓ τῆς ΓΒ. ἡ ΒΔ ἄρα εὐθεῖα ἄκρον καὶ μέσον λόγον τέτμηται [κατὰ τὸ Γ], καὶ τὸ μεῖζον τμῆμα αὐτῆς ἐστιν ἡ ΔΓ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.
If the side of the hexagon and that of the decagon inscribed in the same circle be added together, the whole straight line has been cut in extreme and mean ratio, and its greater segment is the side of the hexagon. Let ABC be a circle; of the figures inscribed in the circle ABC let BC be the side of a decagon, CD that of a hexagon, and let them be in a straight line; I say that the whole straight line BD has been cut in extreme and mean ratio, and CD is its greater segment. For let the centre of the circle, the point E, be taken, let EB, EC, ED be joined, and let BE be carried through to A. Since BC is the side of an equilateral decagon, therefore the circumference ACB is five times the circumference BC; therefore the circumference AC is quadruple of CB. But, as the circumference AC is to CB, so is the angle AEC to the angle CEB; [VI. 33] therefore the angle AEC is quadruple of the angle CEB. And, since the angle EBC is equal to the angle ECB, [I. 5] therefore the angle AEC is double of the angle ECB. [I. 32] And, since the straight line EC is equal to CD, for each of them is equal to the side of the hexagon inscribed in the circle ABC, [IV. 15, Por.] the angle CED is also equal to the angle CDE; [I. 5] therefore the angle ECB is double of the angle EDC. [I. 32] But the angle AEC was proved double of the angle ECB; therefore the angle AEC is quadruple of the angle EDC. But the angle AEC was also proved quadruple of the angle BEC; therefore the angle EDC is equal to the angle BEC. But the angle EBD is common to the two triangles BEC and BED; therefore the remaining angle BED is also equal to the remaining angle ECB; [I. 32] therefore the triangle EBD is equiangular with the triangle EBC. Therefore, proportionally, as DB is to BE, so is EB to BC. [VI. 4] But EB is equal to CD. Therefore, as BD is to DC, so is DC to CB. And BD is greater than DC; therefore DC is also greater than CB.