# Book 5 Proposition 21

Ἐὰν ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία, δι' ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ, καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται, κἂν ἴσον, ἴσον, κἂν ἔλαττον, ἔλαττον. Ἔστω τρία μεγέθη τὰ Α, Β, Γ καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος τὰ Δ, Ε, Ζ, σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, ἔστω δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία, ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ, ὡς δὲ τὸ Β πρὸς τὸ Γ, οὕτως τὸ Δ πρὸς τὸ Ε, δι' ἴσου δὲ τὸ Α τοῦ Γ μεῖζον ἔστω: λέγω, ὅτι καὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ μεῖζον ἔσται, κἂν ἴσον, ἴσον, κἂν ἔλαττον, ἔλαττον. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ μεῖζόν ἐστι τὸ Α τοῦ Γ, ἄλλο δέ τι τὸ Β, τὸ Α ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Β μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν τὸ Α πρὸς τὸ Β, οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Ζ, ὡς δὲ τὸ Γ πρὸς τὸ Β, ἀνάπαλιν οὕτως τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Δ. καὶ τὸ Ε ἄρα πρὸς τὸ Ζ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει ἤπερ τὸ Ε πρὸς τὸ Δ. πρὸς ὃ δὲ τὸ αὐτὸ μείζονα λόγον ἔχει, ἐκεῖνο ἔλασσόν ἐστιν: ἔλασσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Ζ τοῦ Δ: μεῖζον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ Δ τοῦ Ζ. ὁμοίως δὴ δείξομεν, ὅτι κἂν ἴσον ᾖ τὸ Α τῷ Γ, ἴσον ἔσται καὶ τὸ Δ τῷ Ζ, κἂν ἔλαττον, ἔλαττον. Ἐὰν ἄρα ᾖ τρία μεγέθη καὶ ἄλλα αὐτοῖς ἴσα τὸ πλῆθος, σύνδυο λαμβανόμενα καὶ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ, ᾖ δὲ τεταραγμένη αὐτῶν ἡ ἀναλογία, δι' ἴσου δὲ τὸ πρῶτον τοῦ τρίτου μεῖζον ᾖ, καὶ τὸ τέταρτον τοῦ ἕκτου μεῖζον ἔσται, κἂν ἴσον, ἴσον, κἂν ἔλαττον, ἔλαττον: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If there be three magnitudes, and others equal to them in multitude, which taken two and two together are in the same ratio, and the proportion of them be perturbed, then, if ex aequali the first magnitude is greater than the third, the fourth will also be greater than the sixth; if equal, equal; and if less, less. Let there be three magnitudes A, B, C, and others D, E, F equal to them in multitude, which taken two and two are in the same ratio, and let the proportion of them be perturbed, so that, as A is to B, so is E to F, and, as B is to C, so is D to E, and let A be greater than C ex aequali; I say that D will also be greater than F; if A is equal to C, equal; and if less, less. For, since A is greater than C, and B is some other magnitude, therefore A has to B a greater ratio than C has to B. [V. 8] But, as A is to B, so is E to F, and, as C is to B, inversely, so is E to D. Therefore also E has to F a greater ratio than E has to D. [V. 13] But that to which the same has a greater ratio is less; [V. 10] therefore F is less than D; therefore D is greater than F. Similarly we can prove that, if A be equal to C, D will also be equal to F; and if less, less.