# Book 6 Proposition 22

Ἐὰν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν, καὶ τὰ ἀπ' αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ἔσται: κἂν τὰ ἀπ' αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ᾖ, καὶ αὐταὶ αἱ εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται. Ἔστωσαν τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον αἱ ΑΒ, ΓΔ, ΕΖ, ΗΘ, ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ, καὶ ἀναγεγράφθωσαν ἀπὸ μὲν τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα εὐθύγραμμα τὰ ΚΑΒ, ΛΓΔ, ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΕΖ, ΗΘ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα εὐθύγραμμα τὰ ΜΖ, ΝΘ: λέγω, ὅτι ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ, οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. Εἰλήφθω γὰρ τῶν μὲν ΑΒ, ΓΔ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ Ξ, τῶν δὲ ΕΖ, ΗΘ τρίτη ἀνάλογον ἡ Ο. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ, ὡς δὲ ἡ ΓΔ πρὸς τὴν Ξ, οὕτως ἡ ΗΘ πρὸς τὴν Ο, δι' ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν Ξ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν Ο. ἀλλ' ὡς μὲν ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν Ξ, οὕτως [καὶ] τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ, ὡς δὲ ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν Ο, οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ, οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. Ἀλλὰ δὴ ἔστω ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ, οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ: λέγω, ὅτι ἐστὶ καὶ ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. εἰ γὰρ μή ἐστιν, ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ, ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ, καὶ ἀναγεγράφθω ἀπὸ τῆς ΠΡ ὁποτέρῳ τῶν ΜΖ, ΝΘ ὅμοιόν τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον εὐθύγραμμον τὸ ΣΡ. Ἐπεὶ οὖν ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ, καὶ ἀναγέγραπται ἀπὸ μὲν τῶν ΑΒ, ΓΔ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα τὰ ΚΑΒ, ΛΓΔ, ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ΕΖ, ΠΡ ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενα τὰ ΜΖ, ΣΡ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ, οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΣΡ. ὑπόκειται δὲ καὶ ὡς τὸ ΚΑΒ πρὸς τὸ ΛΓΔ, οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΣΡ, οὕτως τὸ ΜΖ πρὸς τὸ ΝΘ. τὸ ΜΖ ἄρα πρὸς ἑκάτερον τῶν ΝΘ, ΣΡ τὸν αὐτὸν ἔχει λόγον: ἴσον ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ ΝΘ τῷ ΣΡ. ἔστι δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ ὅμοιον καὶ ὁμοίως κείμενον: ἴση ἄρα ἡ ΗΘ τῇ ΠΡ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΠΡ, ἴση δὲ ἡ ΠΡ τῇ ΗΘ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ ΑΒ πρὸς τὴν ΓΔ, οὕτως ἡ ΕΖ πρὸς τὴν ΗΘ. Ἐὰν ἄρα τέσσαρες εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ὦσιν, καὶ τὰ ἀπ' αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ἔσται: κἂν τὰ ἀπ' αὐτῶν εὐθύγραμμα ὅμοιά τε καὶ ὁμοίως ἀναγεγραμμένα ἀνάλογον ᾖ, καὶ αὐταὶ αἱ εὐθεῖαι ἀνάλογον ἔσονται: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

[Λῆμμα.] [Ὅτι δέ, ἐὰν εὐθύγραμμα ἴσα ᾖ καὶ ὅμοια, αἱ ὁμόλογοι αὐτῶν πλευραὶ ἴσαι ἀλλήλαις εἰσίν, δείξομεν οὕτως. Ἔστω ἴσα καὶ ὅμοια εὐθύγραμμα τὰ ΝΘ, ΣΡ, καὶ ἔστω ὡς ἡ ΘΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΝ, οὕτως ἡ ΡΠ πρὸς τὴν ΠΣ: λέγω, ὅτι ἴση ἐστὶν ἡ ΡΠ τῇ ΘΗ. Εἰ γὰρ ἄνισοί εἰσιν, μία αὐτῶν μείζων ἐστίν. ἔστω μείζων ἡ ΡΠ τῆς ΘΗ. καὶ ἐπεί ἐστιν ὡς ἡ ΡΠ πρὸς ΠΣ, οὕτως ἡ ΘΗ πρὸς τὴν ΗΝ, καὶ ἐναλλάξ, ὡς ἡ ΡΠ πρὸς τὴν ΘΗ, οὕτως ἡ ΠΣ πρὸς τὴν ΗΝ, μείζων δὲ ἡ ΠΡ τῆς ΘΗ, μείζων ἄρα καὶ ἡ ΠΣ τῆς ΗΝ: ὥστε καὶ τὸ ΡΣ μεῖζόν ἐστι τοῦ ΘΝ. ἀλλὰ καὶ ἴσον: ὅπερ ἀδύνατον. οὐκ ἄρα ἄνισός ἐστιν ἡ ΠΡ τῇ ΗΘ: ἴση ἄρα: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.]

If four straight lines be proportional, the rectilineal figures similar and similarly described upon them will also be proportional; and, if the rectilineal figures similar and similarly described upon them be proportional, the straight lines will themselves also be proportional. Let the four straight lines AB, CD, EF, GH be proportional, so that, as AB is to CD, so is EF to GH, and let there be described on AB, CD the similar and similarly situated rectilineal figures KAB, LCD, and on EF, GH the similar and similarly situated rectilineal figures MF, NH; I say that, as KAB is to LCD, so is MF to NH. For let there be taken a third proportional O to AB, CD, and a third proportional P to EF, GH. [VI. 11] Then since, as AB is to CD, so is EF to GH, and, as CD is to O, so is GH to P, therefore, ex aequali, as AB is to O, so is EF to P. [V. 22] But, as AB is to O, so is KAB to LCD, [VI. 19, Por.] and, as EF is to P, so is MF to NH; therefore also, as KAB is to LCD, so is MF to NH. [V. 11] Next, let MF be to NH as KAB is to LCD; I say also that, as AB is to CD, so is EF to GH. For, if EF is not to GH as AB to CD, let EF be to QR as AB to CD, [VI. 12] and on QR let the rectilineal figure SR be described similar and similarly situated to either of the two MF, NH. [VI. 18] Since then, as AB is to CD, so is EF to QR, and there have been described on AB, CD the similar and similarly situated figures KAB, LCD, and on EF, QR the similar and similarly situated figures MF, SR, therefore, as KAB is to LCD, so is MF to SR. But also, by hypothesis, as KAB is to LCD, so is MF to NH; therefore also, as MF is to SR, so is MF to NH. [V. 11] Therefore MF has the same ratio to each of the figures NH, SR; therefore NH is equal to SR. [V. 9] But it is also similar and similarly situated to it; therefore GH is equal to QR. And, since, as AB is to CD, so is EF to QR, while QR is equal to GH, therefore, as AB is to CD, so is EF to GH.

[Lemma.] [But that, if rectilineal figures be equal and similar, their corresponding sides are equal to one another we will prove thus. Let NH, SR be equal and similar rectilineal figures, and suppose that as HG is to GN, so is RQ to QS; I say that RQ is equal to HG. For, if they are unequal, one of them is greater; let RQ be greater than HG. Then, since, as RQ is to QS, so is HG to GN, alternately also, as RQ is to HG, so is QS to GN; and QR is greater than HG; therefore QS is also greater than GN; so that RS is also greater than HN. But it is also equal: which is impossible. Therefore QR is not unequal to GH; therefore it is equal to it.]