# Book 8 Proposition 2

Ἀριθμοὺς εὑρεῖν ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλαχίστους, ὅσους ἂν ἐπιτάξῃ τις, ἐν τῷ δοθέντι λόγῳ. Ἔστω ὁ δοθεὶς λόγος ἐν ἐλαχίστοις ἀριθμοῖς ὁ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β: δεῖ δὴ ἀριθμοὺς εὑρεῖν ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλαχίστους, ὅσους ἄν τις ἐπιτάξῃ, ἐν τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β λόγῳ. Ἐπιτετάχθωσαν δὴ τέσσαρες, καὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ ποιείτω, τὸν δὲ Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ ποιείτω, καὶ ἔτι ὁ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε ποιείτω, καὶ ἔτι ὁ Α τοὺς Γ, Δ, Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Ζ, Η, Θ ποιείτω, ὁ δὲ Β τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Κ ποιείτω. Καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α ἑαυτὸν μὲν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Γ πεποίηκεν, τὸν δὲ Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, [οὕτως] ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ μὲν Α τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Δ πεποίηκεν, ὁ δὲ Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Ε πεποίηκεν, ἑκάτερος ἄρα τῶν Α, Β τὸν Β πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Δ, Ε πεποίηκεν. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε. καὶ ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Γ, Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Ζ, Η πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, [οὕτως] ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η. ὡς δὲ ὁ Γ πρὸς τὸν Δ, οὕτως ἦν ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ ὁ Α τοὺς Δ, Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τοὺς Η, Θ πεποίηκεν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Δ πρὸς τὸν Ε, ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Α, Β τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Θ, Κ πεποιήκασιν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Β, οὕτως ὅ τε Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η καὶ ὁ Η πρὸς τὸν Θ. καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Ζ πρὸς τὸν Η, οὕτως ὅ τε Η πρὸς τὸν Θ καὶ ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Κ: οἱ Γ, Δ, Ε ἄρα καὶ οἱ Ζ, Η, Θ, Κ ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν ἐν τῷ τοῦ Α πρὸς τὸν Β λόγῳ. λέγω δή, ὅτι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι. ἐπεὶ γὰρ οἱ Α, Β ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς, οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν, οἱ Α, Β ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ ἑκάτερος μὲν τῶν Α, Β ἑαυτὸν πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Γ, Ε πεποίηκεν, ἑκάτερον δὲ τῶν Γ, Ε πολλαπλασιάσας ἑκάτερον τῶν Ζ, Κ πεποίηκεν: οἱ Γ, Ε ἄρα καὶ οἱ Ζ, Κ πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. ἐὰν δὲ ὦσιν ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον, οἱ δὲ ἄκροι αὐτῶν πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὦσιν, ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. οἱ Γ, Δ, Ε ἄρα καὶ οἱ Ζ, Η, Θ, Κ ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α, Β: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

Πόρισμα. Ἐκ δὴ τούτου φανερόν, ὅτι ἐὰν τρεῖς ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἀνάλογον ἐλάχιστοι ὦσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς, οἱ ἄκροι αὐτῶν τετράγωνοί εἰσιν, ἐὰν δὲ τέσσαρες, κύβοι.

To find numbers in continued proportion, as many as may be prescribed, and the least that are in a given ratio. Let the ratio of A to B be the given ratio in least numbers; thus it is required to find numbers in continued proportion, as many as may be prescribed, and the least that are in the ratio of A to B. Let four be prescribed; let A by multiplying itself make C, and by multiplying B let it make D; let B by multiplying itself make E; further, let A by multiplying C, D, E make F, G, H, and let B by multiplying E make K. Now, since A by multiplying itself has made C, and by multiplying B has made D, therefore, as A is to B, so is C to D. [VII. 17] Again, since A by multiplying B has made D, and B by multiplying itself has made E, therefore the numbers A, B by multiplying B have made the numbers D, E respectively. Therefore, as A is to B, so is D to E. [VII. 18] But, as A is to B, so is C to D; therefore also, as C is to D, so is D to E. And, since A by multiplying C, D has made F, G, therefore, as C is to D, so is F to G. [VII. 17] But, as C is to D, so was A to B; therefore also, as A is to B, so is F to G. Again, since A by multiplying D, E has made G, H, therefore, as D is to E, so is G to H. [VII. 17] But, as D is to E, so is A to B. Therefore also, as A is to B, so is G to H. And, since A, B by multiplying E have made H, K, therefore, as A is to B, so is H to K. [VII. 18] But, as A is to B, so is F to G, and G to H. Therefore also, as F is to G, so is G to H, and H to K; therefore C, D, E, and F, G, H, K are proportional in the ratio of A to B. I say next that they are the least numbers that are so. For, since A, B are the least of those which have the same ratio with them, and the least of those which have the same ratio are prime to one another, [VII. 22] therefore A, B are prime to one another. And the numbers A, B by multiplying themselves respectively have made the numbers C, E, and by multiplying the numbers C, E respectively have made the numbers F, K; therefore C, E and F, K are prime to one another respectively. [VII. 27] But, if there be as many numbers as we please in continued proportion, and the extremes of them be prime to one another, they are the least of those which have the same ratio with them. [VIII. 1] Therefore C, D, E and F, G, H, K are the least of those which have the same ratio with A, B. Q. E. D.

Porism. From this it is manifest that, if three numbers in continued proportion be the least of those which have the same ratio with them, the extremes of them are squares, and, if four numbers, cubes.