# Book 8 Proposition 21

Ἐὰν δύο ἀριθμῶν δύο μέσοι ἀνάλογον ἐμπίπτωσιν ἀριθμοί, ὅμοιοι στερεοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀριθμοί. Δύο γὰρ ἀριθμῶν τῶν Α, Β δύο μέσοι ἀνάλογον ἐμπιπτέτωσαν ἀριθμοὶ οἱ Γ, Δ: λέγω, ὅτι οἱ Α, Β ὅμοιοι στερεοί εἰσιν. Εἰλήφθωσαν γὰρ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α, Γ, Δ τρεῖς οἱ Ε, Ζ, Η: οἱ ἄρα ἄκροι αὐτῶν οἱ Ε, Η πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. καὶ ἐπεὶ τῶν Ε, Η εἷς μέσος ἀνάλογον ἐμπέπτωκεν ἀριθμὸς ὁ Ζ, οἱ Ε, Η ἄρα ἀριθμοὶ ὅμοιοι ἐπίπεδοί εἰσιν. ἔστωσαν οὖν τοῦ μὲν Ε πλευραὶ οἱ Θ, Κ, τοῦ δὲ Η οἱ Λ, Μ. φανερὸν ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐκ τοῦ πρὸ τούτου, ὅτι οἱ Ε, Ζ, Η ἑξῆς εἰσιν ἀνάλογον ἔν τε τῷ τοῦ Θ πρὸς τὸν Λ λόγῳ καὶ τῷ τοῦ Κ πρὸς τὸν Μ. καὶ ἐπεὶ οἱ Ε, Ζ, Η ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α, Γ, Δ, καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν Ε, Ζ, Η τῷ πλήθει τῶν Α, Γ, Δ, δι' ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Η, οὕτως ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ. οἱ δὲ Ε, Η πρῶτοι, οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι, οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας αὐτοῖς ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα, τουτέστιν ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον: ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Ε τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Η τὸν Δ. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Ε τὸν Α μετρεῖ, τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ν. ὁ Ν ἄρα τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. ὁ δὲ Ε ἐστιν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Θ, Κ: ὁ Ν ἄρα τὸν ἐκ τῶν Θ, Κ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Α πεποίηκεν. στερεὸς ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Α, πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰσιν οἱ Θ, Κ, Ν. πάλιν, ἐπεὶ οἱ Ε, Ζ, Η ἐλάχιστοί εἰσι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Γ, Δ, Β, ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Ε τὸν Γ μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Η τὸν Β. ὁσάκις δὴ ὁ Ε τὸν Γ μετρεῖ, τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Ξ. ὁ Η ἄρα τὸν Β μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Ξ μονάδας: ὁ Ξ ἄρα τὸν Η πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. ὁ δὲ Η ἐστιν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Λ, Μ: ὁ Ξ ἄρα τὸν ἐκ τῶν Λ, Μ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν Β πεποίηκεν. στερεὸς ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ Β, πλευραὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰσιν οἱ Λ, Μ, Ξ: οἱ Α, Β ἄρα στερεοί εἰσιν. Λέγω [ δή ], ὅτι καὶ ὅμοιοι. ἐπεὶ γὰρ οἱ Ν, Ξ τὸν Ε πολλαπλασιάσαντες τοὺς Α, Γ πεποιήκασιν, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ν πρὸς τὸν Ξ, ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Γ, τουτέστιν ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Ζ, ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Λ καὶ ὁ Κ πρὸς τὸν Μ: καὶ ὡς ἄρα ὁ Θ πρὸς τὸν Λ, οὕτως ὁ Κ πρὸς τὸν Μ καὶ ὁ Ν πρὸς τὸν Ξ. καί εἰσιν οἱ μὲν Θ, Κ, Ν πλευραὶ τοῦ Α, οἱ δὲ Ξ, Λ, Μ πλευραὶ τοῦ Β. οἱ Α, Β ἄρα ἀριθμοὶ ὅμοιοι στερεοί εἰσιν: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If two mean proportional numbers fall between two numbers, the numbers are similar solid numbers. For let two mean proportional numbers C, D fall between the two numbers A, B; I say that A, B are similar solid numbers. For let three numbers E, F, G, the least of those which have the same ratio with A, C, D, be taken; [VII. 33 or VIII. 2] therefore the extremes of them E, G are prime to one another. [VIII. 3] Now, since one mean proportional number F has fallen between E, G, therefore E, G are similar plane numbers. [VIII. 20] Let, then, H, K be the sides of E, and L, M of G. Therefore it is manifest from the theorem before this that E, F, G are continuously proportional in the ratio of H to L and that of K to M. Now, since E, F, G are the least of the numbers which have the same ratio with A, C, D, and the multitude of the numbers E, F, G is equal to the multitude of the numbers A, C, D, therefore, ex aequali, as E is to G, so is A to D. [VII. 14] But E, G are prime, primes are also least, [VII. 21] and the least measure those which have the same ratio with them the same number of times, the greater the greater and the less the less, that is, the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent; [VII. 20] therefore E measures A the same number of times that G measures D. Now, as many times as E measures A, so many units let there be in N. Therefore N by multiplying E has made A. But E is the product of H, K; therefore N by multiplying the product of H, K has made A. Therefore A is solid, and H, K, N are its sides. Again, since E, F, G are the least of the numbers which have the same ratio as C, D, B, therefore E measures C the same number of times that G measures B. Now, as many times as E measures C, so many units let there be in O. Therefore G measures B according to the units in O; therefore O by multiplying G has made B. But G is the product of L, M; therefore O by multiplying the product of L, M has made B. Therefore B is solid, and L, M, O are its sides; therefore A, B are solid. I say that they are also similar. For since N, O by multiplying E have made A, C, therefore, as N is to O, so is A to C, that is, E to F. [VII. 18] But, as E is to F, so is H to L and K to M; therefore also, as H is to L, so is K to M and N to O. And H, K, N are the sides of A, and O, L, M the sides of B.