# Book 9 Proposition 36

Ἐὰν ἀπὸ μονάδος ὁποσοιοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἑξῆς ἐκτεθῶσιν ἐν τῇ διπλασίονι ἀναλογίᾳ, ἕως οὗ ὁ σύμπας συντεθεὶς πρῶτος γένηται, καὶ ὁ σύμπας ἐπὶ τὸν ἔσχατον πολλαπλασιασθεὶς ποιῇ τινα, ὁ γενόμενος τέλειος ἔσται. Ἀπὸ γὰρ μονάδος ἐκκείσθωσαν ὁσοιδηποτοῦν ἀριθμοὶ ἐν τῇ διπλασίονι ἀναλογίᾳ, ἕως οὗ ὁ σύμπας συντεθεὶς πρῶτος γένηται, οἱ Α, Β, Γ, Δ, καὶ τῷ σύμπαντι ἴσος ἔστω ὁ Ε, καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν ΖΗ ποιείτω. λέγω, ὅτι ὁ ΖΗ τέλειός ἐστιν. Ὅσοι γάρ εἰσιν οἱ Α, Β, Γ, Δ τῷ πλήθει, τοσοῦτοι ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε εἰλήφθωσαν ἐν τῇ διπλασίονι ἀναλογίᾳ οἱ Ε, ΘΚ, Λ, Μ: δι' ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Α πρὸς τὸν Δ, οὕτως ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Μ. ὁ ἄρα ἐκ τῶν Ε, Δ ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Α, Μ. καί ἐστιν ὁ ἐκ τῶν Ε, Δ ὁ ΖΗ: καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Α, Μ ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΖΗ. ὁ Α ἄρα τὸν Μ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν ΖΗ πεποίηκεν: ὁ Μ ἄρα τὸν ΖΗ μετρεῖ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τῷ Α μονάδας. καί ἐστι δυὰς ὁ Α: διπλάσιος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΖΗ τοῦ Μ. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ Μ, Λ, ΘΚ, Ε ἑξῆς διπλάσιοι ἀλλήλων: οἱ Ε, ΘΚ, Λ, Μ, ΖΗ ἄρα ἑξῆς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν ἐν τῇ διπλασίονι ἀναλογίᾳ. ἀφῃρήσθω δὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ δευτέρου τοῦ ΘΚ καὶ τοῦ ἐσχάτου τοῦ ΖΗ τῷ πρώτῳ τῷ Ε ἴσος ἑκάτερος τῶν ΘΝ, ΖΞ: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ἡ τοῦ δευτέρου ἀριθμοῦ ὑπεροχὴ πρὸς τὸν πρῶτον, οὕτως ἡ τοῦ ἐσχάτου ὑπεροχὴ πρὸς τοὺς πρὸ ἑαυτοῦ πάντας. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΝΚ πρὸς τὸν Ε, οὕτως ὁ ΞΗ πρὸς τοὺς Μ, Λ, ΚΘ, Ε. καί ἐστιν ὁ ΝΚ ἴσος τῷ Ε: καὶ ὁ ΞΗ ἄρα ἴσος ἐστὶ τοῖς Μ, Λ, ΘΚ, Ε. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὁ ΖΞ τῷ Ε ἴσος, ὁ δὲ Ε τοῖς Α, Β, Γ, Δ καὶ τῇ μονάδι. ὅλος ἄρα ὁ ΖΗ ἴσος ἐστὶ τοῖς τε Ε, ΘΚ, Λ, Μ καὶ τοῖς Α, Β, Γ, Δ καὶ τῇ μονάδι: καὶ μετρεῖται ὑπ' αὐτῶν. λέγω, ὅτι καὶ ὁ ΖΗ ὑπ' οὐδενὸς ἄλλου μετρηθήσεται παρὲξ τῶν Α, Β, Γ, Δ, Ε, ΘΚ, Λ, Μ καὶ τῆς μονάδος. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, μετρείτω τις τὸν ΖΗ ὁ Ο, καὶ ὁ Ο μηδενὶ τῶν Α, Β, Γ, Δ, Ε, ΘΚ, Λ, Μ ἔστω ὁ αὐτός. καὶ ὁσάκις ὁ Ο τὸν ΖΗ μετρεῖ, τοσαῦται μονάδες ἔστωσαν ἐν τῷ Π: ὁ Π ἄρα τὸν Ο πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν ΖΗ πεποίηκεν. ἀλλὰ μὴν καὶ ὁ Ε τὸν Δ πολλαπλασιάσας τὸν ΖΗ πεποίηκεν: ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Π, ὁ Ο πρὸς τὸν Δ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἀπὸ μονάδος ἑξῆς ἀνάλογόν εἰσιν οἱ Α, Β, Γ, Δ, ὁ Δ ἄρα ὑπ' οὐδενὸς ἄλλου ἀριθμοῦ μετρηθήσεται παρὲξ τῶν Α, Β, Γ. καὶ ὑπόκειται ὁ Ο οὐδενὶ τῶν Α, Β, Γ ὁ αὐτός: οὐκ ἄρα μετρήσει ὁ Ο τὸν Δ. ἀλλ' ὡς ὁ Ο πρὸς τὸν Δ, ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Π: οὐδὲ ὁ Ε ἄρα τὸν Π μετρεῖ. καί ἐστιν ὁ Ε πρῶτος: πᾶς δὲ πρῶτος ἀριθμὸς πρὸς ἅπαντα, ὃν μὴ μετρεῖ, πρῶτος [ἐστιν]. οἱ Ε, Π ἄρα πρῶτοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους εἰσίν. οἱ δὲ πρῶτοι καὶ ἐλάχιστοι, οἱ δὲ ἐλάχιστοι μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε ἡγούμενος τὸν ἡγούμενον καὶ ὁ ἑπόμενος τὸν ἑπόμενον: καί ἐστιν ὡς ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Π, ὁ Ο πρὸς τὸν Δ: ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Ε τὸν Ο μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Π τὸν Δ: ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ Ε τὸν Ο μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ Π τὸν Δ. ὁ δὲ Δ ὑπ' οὐδενὸς ἄλλου μετρεῖται παρὲξ τῶν Α, Β, Γ: ὁ Π ἄρα ἑνὶ τῶν Α, Β, Γ ἐστιν ὁ αὐτός. ἔστω τῷ Β ὁ αὐτός. καὶ ὅσοι εἰσὶν οἱ Β, Γ, Δ τῷ πλήθει τοσοῦτοι εἰλήφθωσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ Ε οἱ Ε, ΘΚ, Λ. καί εἰσιν οἱ Ε, ΘΚ, Λ τοῖς Β, Γ, Δ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ: δι' ἴσου ἄρα ἐστὶν ὡς ὁ Β πρὸς τὸν Δ, ὁ Ε πρὸς τὸν Λ. ὁ ἄρα ἐκ τῶν Β, Λ ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Δ, Ε: ἀλλ' ὁ ἐκ τῶν Δ, Ε ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Π, Ο: καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῶν Π, Ο ἄρα ἴσος ἐστὶ τῷ ἐκ τῶν Β, Λ. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ Π πρὸς τὸν Β, ὁ Λ πρὸς τὸν Ο. καί ἐστιν ὁ Π τῷ Β ὁ αὐτός: καὶ ὁ Λ ἄρα τῷ Ο ἐστιν ὁ αὐτός: ὅπερ ἀδύνατον: ὁ γὰρ Ο ὑπόκειται μηδενὶ τῶν ἐκκειμένων ὁ αὐτός. οὐκ ἄρα τὸν ΖΗ μετρήσει τις ἀριθμὸς παρὲξ τῶν Α, Β, Γ, Δ, Ε, ΘΚ, Λ, Μ καὶ τῆς μονάδος. καὶ ἐδείχθη ὁ ΖΗ τοῖς Α, Β, Γ, Δ, Ε, ΘΚ, Λ, Μ καὶ τῇ μονάδι ἴσος. τέλειος δὲ ἀριθμός ἐστιν ὁ τοῖς ἑαυτοῦ μέρεσιν ἴσος ὤν: τέλειος ἄρα ἐστὶν ὁ ΖΗ: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

If as many numbers as we please beginning from an unit be set out continuously in double proportion, until the sum of all becomes prime, and if the sum multiplied into the last make some number, the product will be perfect. For let as many numbers as we please, A, B, C, D, beginning from an unit be set out in double proportion, until the sum of all becomes prime, let E be equal to the sum, and let E by multiplying D make FG; I say that FG is perfect. For, however many A, B, C, D are in multitude, let so many E, HK, L, M be taken in double proportion beginning from E; therefore, ex aequali, as A is to D, so is E to M. [VII. 14] Therefore the product of E, D is equal to the product of A, M. [VII. 19] And the product of E, D is FG; therefore the product of A, M is also FG. Therefore A by multiplying M has made FG; therefore M measures FG according to the units in A. And A is a dyad; therefore FG is double of M. But M, L, HK, E are continuously double of each other; therefore E, HK, L, M, FG are continuously proportional in double proportion. Now let there be subtracted from the second HK and the last FG the numbers HN, FO, each equal to the first E; therefore, as the excess of the second is to the first, so is the excess of the last to all those before it. [IX. 35] Therefore, as NK is to E, so is OG to M, L, KH, E. And NK is equal to E; therefore OG is also equal to M, L, HK, E. But FO is also equal to E, and E is equal to A, B, C, D and the unit. Therefore the whole FG is equal to E, HK, L, M and A, B, C, D and the unit; and it is measured by them. I say also that FG will not be measured by any other number except A, B, C, D, E, HK, L, M and the unit. For, if possible, let some number P measure FG, and let P not be the same with any of the numbers A, B, C, D, E, HK, L, M. And, as many times as P measures FG, so many units let there be in Q; therefore Q by multiplying P has made FG. But, further, E has also by multiplying D made FG; therefore, as E is to Q, so is P to D. [VII. 19] And, since A, B, C, D are continuously proportional beginning from an unit, therefore D will not be measured by any other number except A, B, C. [IX. 13] And, by hypothesis, P is not the same with any of the numbers A, B, C; therefore P will not measure D. But, as P is to D, so is E to Q; therefore neither does E measure Q. [VII. Def. 20] And E is prime; and any prime number is prime to any number which it does not measure. [VII. 29] Therefore E, Q are prime to one another. But primes are also least, [VII. 21] and the least numbers measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times, the antecedent the antecedent and the consequent the consequent; [VII. 20] and, as E is to Q, so is P to D; therefore E measures P the same number of times that Q measures D. But D is not measured by any other number except A, B, C; therefore Q is the same with one of the numbers A, B, C. Let it be the same with B. And, however many B, C, D are in multitude, let so many E, HK, L be taken beginning from E. Now E, HK, L are in the same ratio with B, C, D; therefore, ex aequali, as B is to D, so is E to L. [VII. 14] Therefore the product of B, L is equal to the product of D, E. [VII. 19] But the product of D, E is equal to the product of Q, P; therefore the product of Q, P is also equal to the product of B, L. Therefore, as Q is to B, so is L to P. [VII. 19] And Q is the same with B; therefore L is also the same with P; which is impossible, for by hypothesis P is not the same with any of the numbers set out. Therefore no number will measure FG except A, B, C, D, E, HK, L, M and the unit.