# Book 7 Proposition 20

Οἱ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς μετροῦσι τοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἔχοντας ἰσάκις ὅ τε μείζων τὸν μείζονα καὶ ὁ ἐλάσσων τὸν ἐλάσσονα. Ἔστωσαν γὰρ ἐλάχιστοι ἀριθμοὶ τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων τοῖς Α, Β οἱ ΓΔ, ΕΖ: λέγω, ὅτι ἰσάκις ὁ ΓΔ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τὸν Β. Ὁ ΓΔ γὰρ τοῦ Α οὔκ ἐστι μέρη. εἰ γὰρ δυνατόν, ἔστω: καὶ ὁ ΕΖ ἄρα τοῦ Β τὰ αὐτὰ μέρη ἐστίν, ἅπερ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α. ὅσα ἄρα ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ΓΔ μέρη τοῦ Α, τοσαῦτά ἐστι καὶ ἐν τῷ ΕΖ μέρη τοῦ Β. διῃρήσθω ὁ μὲν ΓΔ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Α μέρη τὰ ΓΗ, ΗΔ, ὁ δὲ ΕΖ εἰς τὰ τοῦ Β μέρη τὰ ΕΘ, ΘΖ: ἔσται δὴ ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΓΗ, ΗΔ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ, ΘΖ. καὶ ἐπεὶ ἴσοι εἰσὶν οἱ ΓΗ, ΗΔ ἀριθμοὶ ἀλλήλοις, εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ οἱ ΕΘ, ΘΖ ἀριθμοὶ ἴσοι ἀλλήλοις, καί ἐστιν ἴσον τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ΓΗ, ΗΔ τῷ πλήθει τῶν ΕΘ, ΘΖ, ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸν ΕΘ, οὕτως ὁ ΗΔ πρὸς τὸν ΘΖ. ἔσται ἄρα καὶ ὡς εἷς τῶν ἡγουμένων πρὸς ἕνα τῶν ἑπομένων, οὕτως ἅπαντες οἱ ἡγούμενοι πρὸς ἅπαντας τοὺς ἑπομένους. ἔστιν ἄρα ὡς ὁ ΓΗ πρὸς τὸν ΕΘ, οὕτως ὁ ΓΔ πρὸς τὸν ΕΖ: οἱ ΓΗ, ΕΘ ἄρα τοῖς ΓΔ, ΕΖ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ λόγῳ εἰσὶν ἐλάσσονες ὄντες αὐτῶν: ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀδύνατον: ὑπόκεινται γὰρ οἱ ΓΔ, ΕΖ ἐλάχιστοι τῶν τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἐχόντων αὐτοῖς. οὐκ ἄρα μέρη ἐστὶν ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α: μέρος ἄρα. καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τοῦ Β τὸ αὐτὸ μέρος ἐστίν, ὅπερ ὁ ΓΔ τοῦ Α: ἰσάκις ἄρα ὁ ΓΔ τὸν Α μετρεῖ καὶ ὁ ΕΖ τὸν Β: ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

The least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them measure those which have the same ratio the same number of times, the greater the greater and the less the less. For let CD, EF be the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with A, B; I say that CD measures A the same number of times that EF measures B. Now CD is not parts of A. For, if possible, let it be so; therefore EF is also the same parts of B that CD is of A. [VII. 13 and Def. 20] Therefore, as many parts of A as there are in CD, so many parts of B are there also in EF. Let CD be divided into the parts of A, namely CG, GD, and EF into the parts of B, namely EH, HF; thus the multitude of CG, GD will be equal to the multitude of EH, HF. Now, since the numbers CG, GD are equal to one another, and the numbers EH, HF are also equal to one another, while the multitude of CG, GD is equal to the multitude of EH, HF, therefore, as CG is to EH, so is GD to HF. Therefore also, as one of the antecedents is to one of the consequents, so will all the antecedents be to all the consequents. [VII. 12] Therefore, as CG is to EH, so is CD to EF. Therefore CG, EH are in the same ratio with CD, EF, being less than they: which is impossible, for by hypothesis CD, EF are the least numbers of those which have the same ratio with them. Therefore CD is not parts of A; therefore it is a part of it. [VII. 4]